Surgery is the first option for treatment of lung cancer. Recently, minimally invasive surgery techniques, also called closed (endoscopic) operations, are performed.
Pneumothorax implies entrapment of air in pleura and resultant collapse of lungs.
These lesions, measuring <3 cm in diameter, develop in the form of a sequel following an infection or a benign lung tumor as well as a lung cancer or spread of cancer from another organ to the lung. They are colloquially called “spots in lungs”.
Esophageal cancer is one of the cancers with highest geographical variations due to regional eating habits. Incidence of esophageal cancer increases in different regions. High incidences are reported in Middle East, where our country is located (especially East and Southeast Anatolia), and the Far East. It is acknowledged that eating and certain social habits increase the risk of esophageal cancer.
CHEST WALL DEFORMITIES
The chest wall may abnormally protrude (pectus carinatum) or be sunken into the chest (pectus excavatum) secondary to a congenital disorder in cartilaginous part of ribs. The condition becomes more prominent, as the children grow (Picture 2). They usually do not lead to an organic disorder. However, it may psychologically affect the child.
SURGERY FOR PULMONARY METASTASES
Surgery should always be the first option for treatment of pulmonary metastases, as complete excision of metastatic lesions and absence of a residual metastatic lesion do not always ensure complete cure.
MEDIASTINAL TUMORS AND CYSTS (THYMOMA)
This area is confined by posterior surface of the breast bone on the anterior margin, ribs on the posterior margins and lungs at both sides in the chest cavity.
PLEURAL EFFUSION – ACCUMULATION OF FLUID IN PLEURA
Pleural effusion is most commonly secondary to pleural involvement of pulmonary and non-pulmonary diseases.
TREATMENT OF MESOTHELIOMA
They are malignant tumors of pleura. They usually begin in people who are exposed to asbestos and erionite for a very prolonged period of time.
TREATMENT OF BRONCHIECTASIS
Bronchiectasis implies irreversible dilatation of bronchi secondary to damage to the bronchial walls.
TREATMENT OF EMPHYSEMA
Emphysema is a chronic airway disease characterized with abnormal and irreversible enlargement of lung tissue and distal airways.
TREATMENT OF PULMONARY HYDATID DISEASE
The disease is manifested by cysts that are caused by a parasite, called E. granulosis, in various organs of the body.
Surgical treatment may be required for hernia, paralysis, elevation, traumatic rupture or tumor of the diaphragm.
THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome is diagnosed using imaging modalities, such as CT and MRI, and measurement of nervous conduction rate (EMG) along with particulars of the physical examination.
Sweating is a mechanism that is routinely used by the body to adjust body temperature.
Esophagus is a special tube that is made of muscle tissue and extends from the mouth to the stomach. It works to transfer swallowed foods and drinks to the stomach. As is the case with many other cancers, esophageal cancer is closely linked to the environment factors. Smoking is among the pioneering ones. The risk of esophagus cancer further increases, if it is combined with alcohol consumption.